GATE 2022 Biotechnology Syllabus Subject Wise

The study of Biotechnology deals with the study of biology and its various aspects. Those who are interested in the subject have a great opportunity in the form of the GATE exam. They can further study in one of the most prestigious colleges of India in the field of Biotechnology with the help of a good GATE score.

Table of Contents

1. GATE 2022 Biotechnology Syllabus

GATE 2022 Biotechnology Syllabus

To secure a good GATE score, one needs to be well prepared and have the basic knowledge in the field of biotechnology as the goal of the GATE exam is to test a candidate’s grasp on the basics of the subject.

Check GATE Biotech Online Mock Test FREE Demo

GATE 2022 Biotech Test Series

The GATE 2022 Biotechnology syllabus includes 6 subjects apart from the compulsory section of Engineering Mathematics. The subjects are General Biology, fundamentals of biological engineering, plant, animal, and microbial biotechnology, bioprocess engineering and process biotechnology, genetics, cellular and molecular biology and recombinant DNA technology, and other tools in biotechnology.

GATE 2022 Biotechnology Syllabus
GATE 2022 Biotechnology

The syllabus of the mathematics section is pretty similar to the rest of the papers. It includes linear algebra, probability and statistics, differential equations, and numerical methods. You need to have the basic knowledge on topics like mean and medians, metrics and determinants, limits, continuity, and differentiability, etc to ace this section.

The subject of general biology is further divided into 3 parts, biochemistry, immunology, and microbiology. The biochemistry section contains topics like biomolecules, their structure and function, biological membranes and their various related aspects, metabolism of lipids, carbohydrates, nucleic acids and amino acids, enzyme, their kinetics and inhibition, and photosynthesis.

The immunology section consists of topics immunity (innate and adaptive), humoral and cell-mediated immunity, T cell and B cell development, antibody, their structure, function, and diversity, on a molecular basis, Antigen-antibody reaction, Antigen processing and presentation, Immune tolerance, immunization and vaccines, Hypersensitivity, Graft versus host reaction, autoimmunity, Polyclonal and a monoclonal antibody, Major histocompatibility complex (MHC), Primary and secondary lymphoid organs.

The microbiology section has the topics Microbial Ecology in various ecosystems like marine and freshwater, bacterial diversity and classification, microbial interaction, growth and nutrition, viruses, methods in microbiology, nitrogen fixations, Antibiotics, and antimicrobial resistance, host-pathogen interaction, and microbial diseases.

Fundamentals of the biological engineering section contain three subjects. The first of these subjects are engineering principles applied to biological systems which contain the topics Stoichiometry of growth and product formation, energy and material balance for reactive and non-reactive systems, Recycle, bypass and purge processes, and electron balance, degree reduction, and theoretical oxygen demand.

The section is Classical thermodynamics and bioenergetics with the subjects laws of thermodynamics, phase and reaction equilibria, solution thermodynamics, Membrane potential, oxidation and reduction reactions, Energetics of metabolic pathways, and ligand bindings.

The third subject is transport processes and it has the topics Laminar and turbulent fluid flow, Newtonian and No-Newtonian fluids, oxygen transfer and uptake in a bioreactor, Molecular diffusion and film theory, Mixing and mixing time in a bioreactor, Conductive and convective heat transfer, heat exchanger, Overall heat transfer coefficient and LMTD.

Plant, animal, and microbial biotechnology as in the name suggest has three sections. The first of these three sections are plants, which further contains Regeneration of plants, tissue culture and cell suspension culture system, Totipotency, Hairy root culture, somaclonal variation, Protoplast, Protoplast fusion, Transgenic plants, industrially important plant production, Hairy root culture, Plastid transformation and Selection marker and reporter gene.

The second part is animals and it includes Cell and tissue preservation for animals, anchorage and non- anchorage-dependent cell culture, growth conditions, and culture media composition, Kinetics of cell growth, Stem cell technology, Micro & macro-carrier culture, Transgenic animals, and animal cloning, hybridonoma technology, and Knock-out and knock-in animals. The last part of this section is microbes.

It includes the production of biomass, production of primary and secondary metabolites, recombinant proteins and metabolites, their production and purification on a large scale, clinical food and industrial microbiology, and Screening strategies for new products.

Bioprocess Engineering and process biotechnology have three sections, upstream and downstream processing, bioreaction engineering and instrumentation, and process control. 

The topics included in these three sections are media formulation and optimization, Cell disruption, sterilization of air and media, centrifugation, filtration, Extraction, adsorption and drying, principles of chromatography, Microbial and enzyme reactors, Enzyme immobilization, rate law, first and zero-order kinetics, Kinetics of cell growth, Ideal reactors for various flow, structured and unstructured models, optimization and scale-up, microbial and enzyme reactors, valves, flow, pressure, and temperature measurement devices, Feedback, and feed-forward control, types of controllers and first-order and second-order systems.

Genetics, cellular and molecular biotechnology have the subsections of cell biology, genetics, and evolutionary biology, and molecular biology. For this section you need to study topics like Cell cycle and cell growth control, Cell signaling and signal transduction, eukaryotic and prokaryotic cell structure, cell-cell communication, Post-translational modifications, extracellular matrix, Cell death and autophagy, protein trafficking, Mendelian inheritance, Extrachromosomal inheritance, gene interaction, linkage, recombination and chromosome mapping, Complementation, microbial genetics, Horizontal gene transfer and transposable elements, genetic disorders, Chromosomal variation, population genetics, Epigenetics, adaptive and neutral evolution, Selection and inheritance, Species and speciation, genetic drift, DNA damage and repair, Molecular structure of genes and chromosomes, nucleic acids, Mutations and mutagenesis, regulation of gene expression, Non-coding and micro RNA and RNA interference.

Chat with us on WhatsApp to get a Guidance for GATE Exam 2022. To chat click here.

Recombinant DNA technology and other tools in biotechnology have four sections, molecular tools, computation tools, analytical tools, and Recombinant DNA technology.

The topics included in al of these sections are Polymerase chain reaction, southern and northern bottling, DNA/RNA labelling and sequencing, DNA fingerprinting, In-situ hybridization, Gene transfer technology, RAPD, RFLP, CRISPR-Cas, Site-directed mutagenesis, Biosensing and biosensors, Sequence and structure databases, sequence analysis, Bioinformatics resources and search tools, Gene prediction, Secondary structure and 3D structure prediction, Metabolic engineering, and systems biology, knowledge discovery in biochemical databases, Metagenomics, Genomics, proteomics, metabolomics, Functional annotation, Principles of spectroscopy, principals of microscopy, Electrophoresis, enzymatic assays, micro-arrays, Immunoassays, Flow cytometry, whole-genome and ChIP-sequencing, immunoblotting, immunohistochemistry, Restriction and modification enzymes, vectors and its various aspects, Expression vectors, Gene isolation and cloning, cDNA and genomic DNA library and Transposons and gene targeting.

These are all the topics you need to get familiar with if you are planning on appearing on GATE with the paper choice of Biotechnology. Although the GATE 2022 Biotechnology syllabus looks a bit long, you can get it done in time if you start early and are consistent with your preparation. With that best of luck with your upcoming exam.

Official Website of IITB: Click Here


GATE Mining Engineering Syllabus 2021 #NEW (MN)

Mining Engineering is one of the most unique branches of Engineering and deals with the study of the extraction process of various minerals from nature and the subsequent processing that is done to the minerals to make them easily useable by humans.

Table of Content

1. GATE Mining Engineering Syllabus 2021
1.1. Surface Environment, Mine Ventilation, and Underground Hazards
1.2. Mining Methods and Machinery
1.3. Mine Geology, Mine Development, and Surveying
1.4. Mineral Economics, Mine Planning, System Engineering
1.5. Geomechanics and Ground Control

Students, who opt for the paper of Mining Engineering as their choice of paper in the GATE examination, have the option to study further in various NITs and IITs to obtain Masters’s Degree in the subject.

Check it out: GATE Mining Online Mock Test Series Demo

However, the admissions in most of these institutes are highly competitive and one needs to secure a very good rank to get admission in their choice of Institute. Securing a good rank in GATE is definitely not a cake-walk, but if one puts the proper work in, it is definitely possible. The first step to getting a good rank is, knowing the full GATE mining engineering syllabus and memorizing it so that you know how much and what you need to study.

GATE Mining Engineering Syllabus 2021

The GATE mining syllabus includes 6 subjects. Five of these subjects are related to the core topics of Mining Engineering and the 6th subject is mathematics. Apart from these, there is also a general aptitude section that the candidates need to attempt.

The general aptitude section has two subjects, verbal and numerical abilities. The verbal ability section consists the topics grammar, analogies, sentence completion, verbal deduction, word groups, and critical reasoning. Numerical ability section contains the topics data interpretation, numerical computation, numerical reasoning, and numerical estimation.

Mathematics is one of the subjects included in many of the GATE papers. The GATE MN Engineering syllabus for this subject is common for all of these papers. The topics in mathematics include the following

  • Probability and statistics
  • Differential Equations
  • Vector calculus
  • Calculus
  • Linear Algebra and
  • Numerical methods.

Other than mathematics, there are five other sections including five topics that you need to study if you want to opt for the Mining paper in the GATE exam. The detailed syllabuses of these five topics are discussed here.

Surface Environment, Mine Ventilation, and Underground Hazards

This section of the mining engineering syllabus deals with the various precautionary measures one needs to follow for the process of mining. This section contains three subtopics, surface environment, mine ventilation, and underground hazards.

The surface environment section deals with the topics air, soil, and water pollution, their standard quality, causes of the pollution and the control measures, land reclamation and noise pollution and its control, and EIA. Whereas the underground hazards, part contains topics like Safety management plans, Underground hazards from fires, explosions, dust and inundation, Accident data analysis, Mine Gases, methane drainage, Rescue apparatus, and practices, Occupational safety, Mine legislation, and Mine lighting. In the last section of this topic, mine ventilation has the subtopics Mechanics of airflow, natural and mechanical ventilation, Underground atmosphere, Heat load sources, and thermal environment, Ventilation planning and survey, air cooling, auxiliary ventilation, Ventilation networks, and various mine fans and their usages.

Mining Methods and Machinery

This section contains the following topics: surface mining and its various aspects, Underground coal mining, underground metal mining, and its various aspects, highwall mining, underground metal mining, and its various aspects, hydraulic, mechanical and pneumatic power, material handling and its various aspects and comminution methods and machinery.

GATE Mining Engineering Syllabus
GATE Mining Engineering Syllabus

Mine Geology, Mine Development, and Surveying

The mine geology section covers the topics Origin and classification of rocks and minerals, structural geology, and ore genesis.

GATE Mining Engineering Online Mock Test Series

The mine development section of this topic covers explosives and energetics, rock tool interaction and that are applicable in the mechanical cutting system, their selection blasting devices and practices, drilling machines and methods, underground drivages, and methods to access of deposits.

The surveying section includes the topics Correlation, underground surveying, curves, level and leveling, Errors and adjustments, contouring, theodolite, tacheometry, triangulation, EDM and total station, GPS, basic GIS, and remote sensing, and photogrammetry. 

Mineral Economics, Mine Planning, System Engineering

This topic further contains three subtopics as suggested by the name. The mineral economics section has the subjects mineral taxation, mine resource classification, discounted cash flow analysis, and mine valuation.

Check It Out: GATE Mining Engineering Online Mock Test Series Schedule

For the mine planning subtopic you need to study, Sampling methods, practices and interpretation, mine size and life determination, ultimate pit configuration, and its determination, selection of mining system, design of Haul road, stope planning, optimum mill cut off grade, its determination, Optimization of facility location, reverse estimation technique (basics of geostatistics and quality control ) and, mine planning and its components.

Lastly, the system engineering section has the following topics: Linear programming, transportation and assignment problems, decision tree, Network analysis, Queueing theory, Inventory models, Reliability of simple systems, Maintainability and availability, and concepts of reliability.

Geomechanics and Ground Control

This section tests a candidate’s knowledge in engineering mechanics, ground control, and geomechanics. All the topics included in this section are free body diagrams, Particle kinematics, and dynamics, Friction forces, beam analysis, Equivalent force systems, Two-dimensional frames and trusses, equations of equilibrium, Theories of rock failure, Rock mass classification, Instrumentation, and stress measurement techniques, ground vibrations, Geotechnical properties of rocks, Subsidence, Rock bursts, and coal bumps, slope stability, Stress distribution around mine openings, strata control, monitoring plan, Design of pillars, mine filling and roof supporting systems.

GATE Online Mock Test Series Schedule

The cut-off marks for the mining engineering branch for the year 2020 ranged between 21 to 33 marks depending upon the cast of the candidate. Provided you have started preparing early and are consistent with your work, this is not a hard mark to achieve. Just stick to the syllabus and keep studying, you are going to do great.

For any future updates regarding the changes in the exam date and the GATE mining engineering syllabus 2021 can be found on the official website of the GATE 2021 exam. You can visit that website by clicking on the following link:

 Stay updated.


GATE Metallurgical Engineering Syllabus 2021 (NEW)

GATE is one of the most prestigious examinations for the Indian Engineering students. Getting a good rank in this exam can open up a lot of doors of possibilities for the candidate. This could be one of the reasons why last year more than 8 lakh applicants applied for GATE to appear on the examination.

Table of Content

1. GATE 2021 Metallurgical Engineering Syllabus
1.1. Engineering Mathematics
1.2. Transport Phenomena and Rate Processes
1.3. Metallurgical Thermodynamics
1.4. Mechanical Metallurgy
1.5. Manufacturing Processes
1.6. Physical Metallurgy
1.7. Mineral Processing and Extractive Metallurgy

Out of these 8 lakh applicants, those who were interested in study in the metallurgy field after their Bachelor’s or Masters’s degree have selected the Metallurgical Engineering option as the paper that they want to appear on.

GATE Metallurgical Engineering Syllabus

If you are interested in doing the same, the first and foremost thing that you need to know by heart is the complete syllabus for the Metallurgical Engineering paper for the GATE exam. Here we have the complete GATE Metallurgical Engineering Syllabus 2021 and all the topics that you need to know. So, let’s take a look.

GATE Metallurgical Engineerin Syllabus
GATE Metallurgical Engineering Syllabus 2021

The GATE Metallurgy Engineering paper is divided into seven sections and the sections include the following topics:

  • Engineering mathematics
  • Transport phenomena and rate processes
  • Metallurgical Thermodynamics
  • Mechanical metallurgy
  • Manufacturing Processes
  • Physical metallurgy and
  • Mineral Processing and Extractive metallurgy

Engineering Mathematics

The mathematics section is compulsory for many of the GATE papers and this section has the goal to measure a candidate’s understanding of the subject mathematics. The section has questions from the topics Linear algebra, numerical methods, calculus, vector calculus, probability & statistics, and differential equations. To elaborate the syllabus even further, the topics under linear algebra are systems of linear equations, Matrices and Determinants and Eigen values and Eigen vectors.

Numerical methods contain the topics solutions of linear and non-linear algebraic equations, single and multi-step methods for differential equations and integration by trapezoidal and Simpson’s rule.

Calculus has the topics limit, partial derivatives, continuity and differentiability, Sequence and series, Maxima and minima, Fourier series, and Test for Convergence. Vector calculus on the other hand contains the topics gradient, Line, Surface and volume integrals, divergence and curl, and Stokes, Gauss, and Green’s theorems.

Probability and Statistics have the topics Conditional probability, mean, median, mode and standard deviation, Poisson normal and bionomical distributions, definitions of probability and sampling theorems, correlation and regression analysis, and random variables.

Lastly he part differentiation equation contains questions n the topics Laplace transformations, one-dimensional heat and wave equations, Linear and non-linear first-order ODEs, Cauchy’s and Euler’s equations, higher-order linear ODEs with constant coefficients, and PDEs Laplace.

Transport Phenomena and Rate Processes

Transport phenomena and rate processes section contains the following topics that you need to study: heat transfer (1-D steady-state conduction, Fourier’s law, and conduction ), Radiation ( Stefan Boltzmann constant, Black body radiation, and Kirchhoff’s law), convection, mass transfer (Mass transfer coefficients and Diffusion and Fick’s laws), momentum transfer (Bernoulli’s equation, flow past plane surfaces and through pipes, mechanical energy balance equation, the concept of viscosity and shell balances), Electrochemical kinetics (  polarization ), dimensional analysis (Significance of dimensionless numbers and Buckingham Pi theorem) and basic laws of chemical kinetics (Arrhenius relation, heterogeneous reactions, first-order reactions, reaction rate constants, and oxidation kinetics).

Metallurgical Thermodynamics

The syllabus for metallurgical thermodynamics includes First and Second law of Thermodynamics, Applications to metallurgical systems, Chemical potential, Maxwell’s relations, Gibbs and Helmholtz free energy, ideal and regular solutions, binary phase diagram and lever rule, Gibbs phase rule, phase equilibria, Equilibrium constant, Activity, Ellingham and phase stability diagrams, free-energy vs. composition diagrams, thermodynamics of point defects, interfaces and surfaces, electrochemistry ( Nernst equations, Single electrode potential, Potential-pH diagrams, and electrochemical cells) and adsorption and segregation phenomena.

Mechanical Metallurgy

The topics under the mechanical metallurgy section are:

  • Dislocation theory (source and multiplication of dislocations, Edge, screw and mixed dislocations, dislocation interactions and reactions, stress fields around dislocations and partial dislocations)
  • Fatigue (Cyclic stress-strain behavior and crack growth)
  • Strengthening mechanism (strengthening due to grain boundaries, precipitation and dispersion, work strain hardening, and solid solution)
  • Fracture behavior (fractography, fracture toughness, Griffith theory, linear elastic fracture mechanics, ductile to brittle transition )
  • High-temperature deformation and failure
  • stress exponent and activation energy
  • Strain tensor and stress tensor
  • Elasticity
  • Representation by Mohr’s circle,
  • Yield criteria
  • Plastic deformation

Manufacturing Processes

Manufacturing process is another important section for the students of the metallurgical engineering branch. It includes topics like:

  • Hot, warm, and cold working of metals
  • Metal casting
  • Casting defects and repairs
  • Metal forming
  • Metal joining
  • Powder metallurgy.

Physical Metallurgy

This section deals with the physical characteristics of various metal crystals. It deals with the formation and phases of various metal and their alloys. The main topics that are in this section are:

Solid-state transformations, Electronic, magnetic and optical properties of materials, X-ray Diffraction, corrosion, and its prevention, Crystal Imperfections, phase transformation, chemical bonding, solid-state transformations, heat treatment of cast iron, steel, and aluminum alloys, surface hardening treatment, Solidification in isomorphous, eutectic and peritectic systems constitutional supercooling, coring and microsegregation, cast structures and macrosegregation, dendritic solidification, TTT and CCT diagrams and Recovery, recrystallization and grain growth

Mineral Processing and Extractive Metallurgy

The last section contains topics related to the subject of extractive metallurgy. The sub-topics that this section covers are:

  • Methods of mineral processing
  • Material and energy balances
  • Non-ferrous metal: Principal and process of extraction (zinc, nickel, lead, aluminum, titanium, copper, magnesium, etc.)
  • Secondary refining processes ( VOD, VAD, AOD, VAR, and ESR)
  • Stainless steel making
  • Ingot and continuous casting
  • Iron and steel making.

For more details and any updates to the GATE Metallurgical Engineering Syllabus 2021, make sure to keep visiting the official site for the GATE exam of the year 2021. Before even preparing to study you need to memorize your complete syllabus. That way you can plan better on how much time to spend on which topic. Remember, everyone works hard to their best capabilities, but working hard and smart is the key to success.

Must Check it Out: GATE Online Mock Test Series

The GATE exam for this year is supposed to take place in the month of February, so make sure that you are prepared for it by then. Till then you can know all the updates for the exam in the official website by clicking on the following link: